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  Most popular articles (Since May 02, 2012)

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Pulp vitality tests - an overview on comparison of sensitivity and vitality
A Arun, H Mythri, Dale Chachapan
May-August 2015, 6(2):41-46
Pulp vitality testing is only one facet of oral diagnosis, which is crucial in monitoring the health of the dental pulp. A pain response to hot, cold, or an electric pulp tester indicates the vitality of only a tooth's pulpal sensory supply. Although the sensitivity of these traditional tests is high, the response does not give any idea about the state of the pulp. They often yield false-negative and false-positive response. The newer pulp testing considers the vascular supply is more important to determine the health of the pulp than the sensory supply. Hence, pulp testing has been always an 'overvalued' and 'underused' diagnostic aid. This article attempts to give a comprehensive view of all the tests based on sensitivity as well as vitality.
  22,518 1,556 -
Orthodontic care of medically compromised patients
Sandhya Maheshwari, Sanjeev Kumar Verma, Juhi Ansar, KC Prabhat
September-December 2012, 3(3):129-137
Advances in the treatment of medical conditions have resulted in long-term disease-free survival. Consequently, many of these patients are now seeking orthodontic therapy. This article will discuss various systemic diseases, their effect on orthodontic treatment and the recommended methods to avoid the potential problems that may arise.
  20,599 1,380 1
Canine protected occlusion
Neeta Pasricha, Venus Sidana, Satpreet Bhasin, Monika Makkar
January-April 2012, 3(1):13-18
Over the years several concepts of occlusion have been developed and have gained varying degrees of popularity. No single type of functional occlusion has been found to predominate in nature. To suggest that one occlusal scheme is superior to other is not scientifically defensible. However, current emphasis in fixed and restorative dentistry has been on the concept of canine-protected occlusion as canines act as the first line of control to keep mandible functioning more vertically. Canine-protected occlusion reduces the chances of temporomandibular dysfunction, since it decreases lateral tooth contact and the possibility of interfering contacts. This article reviews canine-protected occlusion, its biomechanics, similarities and differences with group function, and components of anterior guidance.
  15,615 1,821 -
Clinical and surgical considerations for impacted mesiodens in young children: An update
Ritu Jindal, Sunila Sharma, Kanupriya Gupta
May-August 2012, 3(2):94-98
Background: Most supernumerary teeth are located in the anterior maxillary region and are classified according to their form and location. Their presence may give rise to a variety of clinical problems. Detection of supernumerary teeth is best achieved by thorough clinical and radiographic examination. Supernumerary teeth may be encountered by the general dental practitioner as a chance finding on a radiograph or as the cause of an impacted central incisor. Design: This article presents an overview of the clinical problems associated with supernumerary teeth and includes a discussion of the classification, diagnosis, and management of this difficult clinical entity. Conclusion: The most common supernumerary tooth, which appears in the maxillary midline, is mesiodens. Their diagnosis and management should form part of a comprehensive treatment plan. Treatment depends on the type and position of the supernumerary tooth and on its effect on adjacent teeth. The article throws a light on various modalities for investigation and treatment of supernumerary teeth, which is important for an early intervention in children to avoid major complications.
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Group function occlusion
Venus Sidana, Neeta Pasricha, Monika Makkar, Satpreet Bhasin
September-December 2012, 3(3):124-128
The study of occlusion involves not only the static relationship of teeth but also their functional interrelationship and all components of the masticatory system. Anterior guidance is essential to a harmonious functional relationship in natural dentition and is critical to functional occlusion. Anterior guidance can be categorized as canine guided and group function. Both techniques are divergent in philosophy and technique. The purpose of this article is to review group function occlusion. The group function occlusion on working side distributes the occlusal load and prevents teeth on non working side from being subjected to the destructive, obliquely directed forces.
  10,052 1,230 1
Recent advances, current concepts and future trends in oral implantology
D Krishna Prasad, Divya Mehra, D Anupama Prasad
May-August 2014, 5(2):55-62
The science of implantology is highly dynamic. Ever since its introduction into the field of dentistry by Dr. Branemark, it has undergone numerous modifications and improvements. With each improvement and advancement made, implantology has proved to be a boon in disguise to the society and hence its acceptance by the general population has widely increased despite it being a relatively expensive treatment modality. This article gives a brief review of the current concepts and the possible future trends in the field of implantology.
  8,965 2,019 -
Efficacy of ibuprofen and paracetamol and diclofenac sodium and paracetamol combination on postoperative pain following root canal preparation in a randomized placebo-controlled study
Sameer Makkar, Nisha Kaler, Rajan Dhawan, Navjot Mann, Shinam Pasricha
January-April 2012, 3(1):19-23
Aim: To compare the efficacy of two different oral analgesic combinations on postoperative pain following root canal preparation in teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods: In this in-vivo study, 30 patients who were diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis in anteriors or premolars, having moderate to severe pain were divided randomly into three groups of 10 patients each. The two experimental groups received a single dose of either ibuprofen or paracetamol or diclofenac sodium and paracetamol combination while the control group received placebo medication, immediately after the first appointment where the pulp was extirpated and canals were fully prepared. The intensity of pain was recorded preoperatively and at 6hrs, 12hrs and 24hrs postoperatively using both Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Verbal Descriptor Scale (VDS). The data was analyzed statistically. Result: At 6hrs, 12hrs and 24hrs postoperatively, the intensity of pain was significantly lower in experimental groups than in placebo group. Diclofenac sodium and paracetamol combination was more effective than ibuprofen and paracetamol combination in relieving postoperative pain. Conclusion: A single oral dose of diclofenac sodium and paracetamol and ibuprofen and paracetamol combination reduced postoperative pain following pulpectomy and root canal preparation of teeth with irreversible pulpitis.
  8,610 705 3
Smile analysis in orthodontics
Sapna Singla, Gurvanit Lehl
May-August 2014, 5(2):49-54
In the recent years, esthetics has become the primary consideration for the patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Although ideal occlusion should be the primary functional goal of orthodontics, the esthetic outcome is also critical for patient satisfaction and therefore essential to the overall treatment objectives. Hence, orthodontic treatment must incorporate various esthetic elements of smile to achieve desirable results. The article describes the principles of smile analysis, that should be considered during orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.
  6,514 1,041 -
Toothbrush 'A key to mechanical plaque control'
Deepak Grover, Ranjan Malhotra, Sumati J Kaushal, Gurpreet Kaur
May-August 2012, 3(2):62-68
Despite the wide range of methods available, mechanical plaque removal with a manual toothbrush remains the primary method of maintaining good oral hygiene for a majority of the population. Several different toothbrushing methods with manual brushes exist. The popularity of various techniques has waxed and waned over the twentieth century. However, no one method of brushing has been found superior to the other. However, plaque control by toothbrushing alone is not sufficient to control gingival and periodontal diseases because periodontal lesions are predominantly interdental. For years dental authorities have instructed their patients on how to brush their teeth correctly. However, many people lack the patience and do not follow dental instructions for more than a brief period. Therefore, studies were initiated in the belief that the introduction of power brushing would help the average person brush his teeth with greater efficiency. The purpose of this article is to update the available information on the toothbrush designs, tooth brushing methods, and the introduction of powered and ionic brushes.
  5,589 865 2
Extraoral enucleation of dentigerous cyst: A case report of rare treatment option and review of literatures
Amit Bali, Deepika Bali, Ashutosh Sharma, Nageshwar Iyer
January-April 2012, 3(1):53-56
A dentigerous cyst is the second most common odontogenic cyst after the redicular cyst. It is most commonly associated with impacted mandibular third molar. Most common treatment for dentigerous cyst is intraoral enucleation; however, extraoral removal is required in rare cases. Here we are reporting a case of dentigerous cyst associated with an impacted mandibular third molar that required an extraoral approach for enucleation and reviewing the different rare treatment options for the dentigerous cyst.
  5,748 435 -
Effect of locally delivered aloe vera gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A clinical study
Harjit Kaur Virdi, Sanjeev Jain, Shivani Sharma
May-August 2012, 3(2):84-89
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aloe vera gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the management of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: The effect of aloe vera on reduction of plaque, gingivitis, and periodontitis was evaluated in a randomized, single-blind, split-mouth study. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis having 5 mm periodontal pockets bilaterally at least in one site were included in the study. On one side, SRP was done and on the contralateral side along with SRP pure aloe vera gel was applied in the periodontal pockets at the baseline and after 1 and 2 weeks. Probing pocket depth, gingival index (GI; and plaque index (PI; were noted at the baseline and after 6 weeks. Results: There was a significant improvement in the pocket depth and the GI readings after 6 weeks in both the groups (paired t-test). On comparing, the SRP-ALOE group showed significantly better results than SRP alone ( P < 0.0001) (ANOVA test). In the PI though the significant improvement was there in both the groups, the difference between the groups was not significant ( P > 0.1771). Conclusion: Results encourage the use of aloe vera in the treatment of periodontitis.
  5,276 843 1
Interocclusal records in fixed prosthodontics
Balvinder Singh Saluja, Divya Mittal
September-December 2013, 4(3):120-124
The precise relation of maxillary and mandibular casts is an essential step in developing accurate occlusion in fixed prosthodontics. When an adequate number of opposing teeth and stable intercuspation exist, direct occlusion of the casts is the most accurate method of articulation. In the absence of definitive occlusal contacts for direct relation of the casts, an interocclusal record is required. This becomes even more important when the distal tooth in the arch is also an abutment in the fixed partial denture. This article reviews various materials and techniques for recording interocclusal relationship in fixed prosthodontic procedures.
  5,006 919 -
Intraoral fibro-lipoma: A rare histological variant
Pramod Kumar, Anjali Naraniya
January-April 2012, 3(1):39-41
Lipomas are benign neoplasm of adipocytes, but are rarely seen in oral cavity, representing 1% of all benign tumors. Hence, correct histopathological examination of lipomas is important. Fibro-lipoma is one of the rare variant of the lipoma, and very few cases have been reported in the oral cavity. This article describes a case of 60-year-old female with fibro-lipoma of the buccal mucosa. The diagnosis and differentiation of fibro-lipoma with clinically similar lesions such as fibroma, mucocele, and pleomorphic adenoma are very essential for a correct treatment plan and complete follow-up.
  5,168 354 -
Zucchelli's technique combined with platelet-rich fibrin for root coverage
Kriti Agarwal, KK Gupta, Kanika Agarwal, Nishant Kumar
January-April 2012, 3(1):49-52
Desire for improved esthetics and the consequent need for cosmetic dentistry have increased tremendously in recent times making esthetic procedures an integral part of periodontal treatment. The treatment of choice for recession coverage should address the biological as well as the patient's esthetic demands. Zucchelli and Sanctis (2000) proposed a modification in the coronally advanced flap technique for treatment of multiple recession defects in esthetic areas. A recent innovation in dentistry is the preparation and use of platelet-rich fibrin for recession defects. This case report highlights the Zucchelli's technique along with the use of PRF for root coverage in multiple recession defects.
  4,504 937 -
Verrucous carcinoma: A study of 10 cases
Amit Agnihotri, Deepshikha Agnihotri
May-August 2012, 3(2):79-83
Background: Verrucous carcinoma is a unique clinico pathological variant of squamous cell carcinoma, occurring mainly in oral cavity and larynx, buccal mucosa being most commonly involved. The aim of this clinical study was to identify clinical and histopathological features of the verrucous carcinoma of oral cavity. Materials and Method: 10 patients who had developed oral verrucous carcinoma. In this study, the diagnostic criteria included clinical and histopathological features of the lesions. Results: All the patients were diagnosed with verrucous carcinoma following incisional biopsy. Buccal mucosa was the most affected site (50%), followed by the palate (10%), the alveolar ridge and gingiva (10%) and the lip mucosa (10%). Cigarette smoking (40%) was the main etiological factor of the verrucous carcinoma. Conclusion: The overall study concluded that verrucous carcinoma is more prevalent in males than in females and most of the patients were chronic cigarette smokers. So there emerge a necessity to differentiate between the different variants of Squamous cell carcinoma.
  4,734 501 -
Unilateral supplemental primary maxillary lateral incisor without a permanent supernumerary: A rare case report
Deepak Kumar Gupta, Sanjeev Mittal, Mona Gupta, Harmesh Sharma
January-April 2012, 3(1):45-48
Supernumerary teeth occur frequently in permanent dentition, but they are less prevalent in primary dentition. Supernumerary teeth of orthodox shape and size that resemble normal dentition are called 'supplemental teeth.' Supplemental teeth are less common than supernumerary teeth and are often overlooked because of their normal shape and size. Supplemental teeth may cause esthetic problems, delayed eruption and crowding, and they require early diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications. Deciduous supernumerary teeth are often accompanied by corresponding permanent supernumerary usually in the same area. The present case is a rare exception, in which no permanent supernumerary was found anywhere in the arch.
  4,826 302 -
Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: A review
Jagriti Gupta, Krishna Kumar Gupta, Fahad Mansoor Samadi, Arpita Kabiraj
May-August 2012, 3(2):74-78
Smokeless tobacco (ST) is not burnt when it is used and is usually placed in the oral or nasal cavities against the mucosal sites that permit the absorption of nicotine into the human body. Health risks related to ST have received comparatively little attention, in spite of widespread use in many parts of the world. With the current emphasis on adverse health consequences of tobacco smoking, including exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, there may be a shift to increased use of ST. Habitual use of oral tobacco can increase the risk of oral cancer. Increasing use has been reported not only among men, but also among such vulnerable groups as children, teenagers, women of reproductive age, and by immigrants of the South Asian origin wherever they have settled. However, the known and suspected health risks associated with ST indicate that it should not be viewed as an alternative to smoking. The present review portrays a vivid description of the various ill effects of ST usage.
  4,259 683 -
Periodontal microsurgery - A must for perio-aesthetics
D Deepa, DS Mehta, Vidhi Munjal
September-December 2014, 5(3):103-108
Treatment modalities addressing both biologic and esthetic demands are most often expected from today's periodontal practice. New technologies, instruments, and surgical techniques are necessary to help clinician ensure the best results and satisfy the patient's expectations. Microsurgical equipments help to enhance normal vision through magnification along with favorable lighting enabling to perform precise periodontal surgical procedures. With increasing awareness and the desire to get the best treatment among patients, these magnificent magnifying tools come handy for an innovative periodontal micro-surgeon. Here is an attempt to present the advantages of microsurgery offered in periodontics in this era of patient-driven dentistry.
  4,042 838 -
The plasma cell gingival enlargement: The diagnostic and esthetic concerns
Sangeeta Dhir, Monica Mehendiratta, Ranjan Malhotra, Gunjan Gupta
May-August 2012, 3(2):117-120
Being a rare benign condition of the gingiva, PCG is characterized with erythematous and edematous gingivitis. The biologic phenomenon of the hypersensitive reaction appears to be chief etiology behind this occasionally presenting clinical entity. Plasma cell gingivitis has a close resemblance to discoid lupus, lichen planus, cicatricial pemphigoid or leukemia , and HIV gingivitis.It is known to present as a hypersensitive response to allergen, but sometimes it could present as a clinical entity with unknown etiology. The histological picture comprises of a dense infiltration of plasma cells separated with strands of collagen. Plasma cell gingivitis is a rare benign condition of the gingiva, which is marked with dense infiltration of the plasma cells separated with the strands of the collagen. The biologic phenomenon of the hypersensitive reaction appears to be chief etiology behind this occasionally presenting clinical entity. Plasma cell gingivitis has a close resemblance to discoid lupus, lichen planus, cicatricial pemphigoid or leukemia, and HIV gingivitis. We document herea case report of this clinical situation with an unusual gingival enlargement.
  4,287 511 -
Carpal tunnel syndrome: An occupational hazard
Ramesh Nadiger, Saquib Shaikh, Sagar J Abichandani
September-December 2012, 3(3):138-144
Background: The authors wanted to evaluate the comprehensive literature on carpal tunnel syndrome and find out if there is any correlation with dentists having a higher prevalence of its occurrence and finding out the scientific literature involving carpal tunnel syndrome among dentists. Materials and Methods: A review of dental literature involving carpal tunnel syndrome was undertaken. Details appearing in the literature prior to 1995 was reviewed in a comprehensive manner and the literature post 1995 was reviewed electronically. Results: The prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is higher in dental professionals involving various facets of dental specialties. Conclusions: Abnormal postures, including muscle imbalances, muscle necrosis, trigger points, hypo mobile joints, nerve compression, and spinal disk herniation or degeneration may result in serious detrimental physiological changes in the body. These changes often result in pain, injury, or possible neuro-skeletal disorders. Clinical Implications: Dentists have an increased risk of carpal tunnel syndrome and precautions and care should be exercised to prevent detrimental irreversible changes to occur in the body.
  4,282 322 -
Complete denture esthetics revisited
Roseline Meshramkar, Gouri V Anehosur, Lekha K Pillai, Ramesh K Nadiger
January-April 2013, 4(1):8-11
Denture esthetics is the effect produced by a denture that affects beauty and attractiveness of a person. It is blending or combination of art and science of prosthodontics. The loss of oral structures primarily affects the appearance of the lower part of the face. The appearance of the entire lower half of the face depends on dentures in edentulous patients. Denture esthetics does not begin and end with selection of denture teeth, factors such as impression technique, occlusal plane, vertical dimension, and centric relation also significantly affect denture esthetics. The dentist must consider esthetic guidelines to achieve esthetics for complete denture.
  3,269 718 -
Comparison of conventional tissue processing with microwave processing using commercially available and domestic microwaves
Rajat Nangia, Abhiney Puri, Rakhi Gupta, Sucheta Bansal, Amita Negi, Megha Mittal
May-August 2013, 4(2):64-69
Context: Microwave-accelerated tissue processing is believed to have brought a revolutionary improvement in the field of histopathology and histochemistry. This technique shortens the time for tissue processing from days to minutes. The technique fulfills the needs of the patient as well as those of the physician by improving the use of reagents while reducing or eliminating their toxicity, and places the laboratory in a better position to meet the demands of the surgeon. Aim: This study is being conducted to determine the efficacy of the microwave tissue processing method for orofacial biopsy specimens by comparing two different techniques of microwave histoprocessing with the conventional method, based on the clarity of nucleocytoplasmic differentiation and staining of tissues processed by each method . Materials and Methods: Twenty oral mucosal biopsy specimens were cut into three equal parts and each part was processed by three processing techniques. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed at the same time and grading was done by four oral pathologists . Statistical Analysis Used: The one-way ANOVA test using SPSS 17 was used in this study. Result: The parameters (color intensity, contrast, uniformity of staining, cytoplasmic and nuclear details) appeared slightly better in a commercial microwave, followed by the domestic microwave method and the routine method. The P values were statistically insignificant for all the parameters except color intensity . Conclusion: Microwaves can be used for tissue processing, which shortens the time for tissue processing without affecting the architecture of the cells and with increased intensity of staining.
  3,461 427 -
Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the hard palate: A case report with a review of the literature on therapeutic and prognostic aspects
Kanaram Choudhary, VT Beena, R Rajeev, S Manju, R Sivakumar, SK Padmakaumar
May-August 2012, 3(2):113-116
Salivary gland neoplasms of the head and neck consist of 1-5% of the total malignancies. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is the second most common malignancy of the salivary gland. It is considered as an intermediate grade of salivary gland neoplasms. Here we report a case of AdCC involving the left hard palate, which was initially diagnosed as periapical granuloma. We have also reviewed different treatment options available for AdCC, and prognostic factors as well.
  3,523 344 -
Frequency of impacted and missing third molars among orthodontic patients in the population of Punjab
Sumit Bansal, Kanav Gupta, Sandeep Garg, Shrish Charan Srivastava
January-April 2012, 3(1):24-27
Background : The pattern of third molar impactions and agenesis varies in different population groups. The frequency of mandibular third molar impaction and agenesis is quite frequent in the population of Punjab. Materials and Methods : Pretreatment records of 400 patients, who underwent orthodontic treatment in the Punjab population (aged 13 to 25 years; mean age = 17.5 years) were entered into the study for checking the frequency of missing third molars and out of those, 200 patients with presence of third molars and more than 2/3 rd root formation (aged 18 to 25 yrs; mean age = 22.5 yrs) were evaluated for frequency of impacted third molars. The prevalence of third molar impactions and agenesis was calculated in terms of gender and jaw involvement. Results : Among the 400 subjects studied, 167 third molars were missing in 104 patients (26%). Among the 200 subjects with more than 2/3 rd root formation who were studied for impacted third molars, 64 subjects (32 %) were diagnosed with 112 third molar impactions. It was found that the frequency of impacted third molars was more in mandible than in the maxilla. Conclusion : These results suggest that impaction and agenesis of the third molar is a relatively common finding these days. Frequency of impacted third molar teeth is more than the missing third molars.
  3,385 333 -
Correlation between PUFA/pufa scores and BMI-for age in rural Indian children
Rohini Dua, Ritu Jindal, Devinderjit Kaur, Neha Aggarwal
January-April 2014, 5(1):21-26
Context: Dental caries continues to be a major health problem in the developing nations like India. The unmet dental care needs pose an important risk factor for undernutrition prevalence in rural areas. Aims: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dental caries and its consequences using pulp involvement, ulceration, fistula, abscess (PUFA/pufa) indices on age-specific body mass index (BMI) for age, also considering socioeconomic status (SES) in 4-14 years old rural children. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 children aged 4-14 years were included in the study that presented with any of the sequelae of untreated dental caries either in primary or permanent teeth. PUFA/pufa index was used according to the standard procedure to assess the consequence of untreated dental decay. The height and weight of the children were determined using standardized scales. The BMI percentile was computed using Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts. The children SES were also recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test were performed. Then, Spearman correlation coefficient was calculated. All calculations were performed using SPSS version 15 (Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences, Chicago, Illinois, USA). Results: BMI for age and SES show a positive correlation ( P < 0.01). There exists statistically significant negative correlation of BMI for age with mean PUFA + pufa and SES. With increasing age, BMI for age shows positive correlation ( P < 0.01) with highly significant negative correlation with mean PUFA + pufa. Conclusions: The younger children belonging to lower SES have higher mean PUFA + pufa scores and below normal BMI as compared with older children.
  3,254 430 -